xcalc
scientific calculator for X
see also :
X  xrdb
Synopsis
xcalc
[stipple] [rpn] [toolkitoption...]
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examples
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description
xcalc is
a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can emulate a
TI30 or an HP10C.
options
xcalc
accepts all of the standard toolkit command line options
along with two additional options:
stipple
This option indicates that the
background of the calculator should be drawn using a stipple
of the foreground and background colors. On monochrome
displays improves the appearance.
rpn
This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation
should be used. In this mode the calculator will look and
behave like an HP10C. Without this flag, it will emulate a
TI30.
accelerators
Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands. xcalc
provides some sample keyboard accelerators; also users can
customize accelerators. The numeric keypad accelerators provided
by xcalc should be intuitively correct. The accelerators
defined by xcalc on the main keyboard are given below:
TI Key HP Key Keyboard Accelerator TI Function HP Function
SQRT
SQRT
r
squareRoot()
squareRoot()
AC
ON
space
clear()
clear()
AC
<
Delete
clear()
back()
AC
<
Backspace
clear()
back()
AC
<
ControlH
clear()
back()
AC
Clear
clear()
AC
ON
q
quit()
quit()
AC
ON
ControlC
quit()
quit()
INV
i
i
inverse()
inverse()
sin
s
s
sine()
sine()
cos
c
c
cosine()
cosine()
tan
t
t
tangent()
tangent()
DRG
DRG
d
degree()
degree()
e
e
e()
ln
ln
l
naturalLog()
naturalLog()
y^x
y^x
^
power()
power()
PI
PI
p
pi()
pi()
x!
x!
!
factorial()
factorial()
(
(
leftParen()
)
)
rightParen()
/
/
/
divide()
divide()
*
*
*
multiply()
multiply()



subtract()
subtract()
+
+
+
add()
add()
=
=
equal()
0..9
0..9
0..9
digit()
digit()
.
.
.
decimal()
decimal()
+/
CHS
n
negate()
negate()
x:y
x
XexchangeY()
ENTR
Return
enter()
ENTR
Linefeed
enter()
application resources
rpn (Class Rpn)
Specifies that the rpn mode should be used. The default is TI
mode.
stipple (Class Stipple)
Indicates that the background should be stippled. The default is
’’on’’ for monochrome displays, and
’’off’’ for color displays.
cursor (Class Cursor)
The name of the symbol used to represent the pointer. The default
is ’’hand2’’.
colors
If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the
following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read with
xrdb:
*customization: color
This will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the appdefaults
color customization file:
/etc/X11/appdefaults/XCalccolor.
copyright
Copyright 1994 X Consortium
See X(7) for a full statement of rights and permissions.
customization
The application class name is XCalc.
xcalc has an enormous application defaults file which
specifies the position, label, and function of each key on the
calculator. It also gives translations to serve as keyboard
accelerators. Because these resources are not specified in the
source code, you can create a customized calculator by writing a
private application defaults file, using the Athena Command and
Form widget resources to specify the size and position of
buttons, the label for each button, and the function of each
button.
The foreground and background colors of each calculator key can
be individually specified. For the TI calculator, a classical
color resource specification might be:
XCalc.ti.Command.background:
gray50
XCalc.ti.Command.foreground:
white
For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
XCalc.ti.button20.background:
black
XCalc.ti.button20.foreground:
white
For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38,
and 39:
XCalc.ti.button22.background:
white
XCalc.ti.button22.foreground:
black
operation
Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer
button 1, or in some cases, with the keyboard. Many common
calculator operations have keyboard accelerators. To quit, press
pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI calculator, or the ON
key of the HP calculator.
Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/
key, and the +, , *, /, and = keys all do exactly what you would
expect them to. It should be noted that the operators obey the
standard rules of precedence. Thus, entering "3+4*5=" results in
"23", not "35". The parentheses can be used to override this. For
example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)=" results in "6*15=90".
The entire number in the calculator display can be selected, in
order to paste the result of a calculation into text.
The action procedures associated with each function are given
below. These are useful if you are interested in defining a
custom calculator. The action used for all digit keys is
digit(n), where n is the
corresponding digit, 0..9.
1/x
Replaces the number in the display with its reciprocal. The
corresponding action procedure is reciprocal().
x^2
Squares the number in the display. The corresponding action
procedure is square().
SQRT
Takes the square root of the number in the display. The
corresponding action procedure is squareRoot().
CE/C
When pressed once, clears the number in the display without
clearing the state of the machine. Allows you to reenter a
number if you make a mistake. Pressing it twice clears the state,
also. The corresponding action procedure for TI mode is
clear().
AC
Clears the display, the state, and the memory. Pressing it with
the third pointer button turns off the calculator, in that it
exits the program. The action procedure to clear the state is
off(); to quit, quit().
INV
Invert function. See the individual function keys for details.
The corresponding action procedure is inverse().
sin
Computes the sine of the number in the display, as interpreted by
the current DRG mode (see DRG, below). If inverted, it computes
the arcsine. The corresponding action procedure is sine().
cos
Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted. The
corresponding action procedure is cosine().
tan
Computes the tangent, or arctangent when inverted. The
corresponding action procedure is tangent().
DRG
Changes the DRG mode, as indicated by ’DEG’,
’RAD’, or ’GRAD’ at the bottom of of the
calculator ’’liquid crystal’’ display.
When in ’DEG’ mode, numbers in the display are taken
as being degrees. In ’RAD’ mode, numbers are in
radians, and in ’GRAD’ mode, numbers are in grads.
When inverted, the DRG key has a feature of converting degrees to
radians to grads and viceversa. Example: put the calculator into
’DEG’ mode, and enter "45 INV DRG". The display
should now show something along the lines of ".785398", which is
45 degrees converted to radians. The corresponding action
procedure is degree().
e
The constant ’e’. (2.7182818...). The corresponding
action procedure is e().
EE
Used for entering exponential numbers. For example, to get
"2.3E4" you’d enter "2 . 3 +/ EE 4 +/". The
corresponding action procedure is scientific().
log
Calculates the log (base 10) of the number in the display. When
inverted, it raises "10.0" to the number in the display. For
example, entering "3 INV log" should result in "1000". The
corresponding action procedure is logarithm().
ln
Calculates the log (base e) of the number in the display. When
inverted, it raises "e" to the number in the display. For
example, entering "e ln" should result in "1". The corresponding
action procedure is naturalLog().
y^x
Raises the number on the left to the power of the number on the
right. For example "2 y^x 3 =" results in "8", which is 2^3. For
a further example, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6 y^x 3" which
equals "216". The corresponding action procedure is
power().
PI
The constant ’pi’. (3.1415927....) The corresponding
action procedure is pi().
x!
Computes the factorial of the number in the display. The number
in the display must be an integer in the range 0500, though,
depending on your math library, it might overflow long before
that. The corresponding action procedure is factorial().
(
Left parenthesis. The corresponding action procedure for TI
calculators is leftParen().
)
Right parenthesis. The corresponding action procedure for TI
calculators is rightParen().
/
Division. The corresponding action procedure is divide().
*
Multiplication. The corresponding action procedure is
multiply().

Subtraction. The corresponding action procedure is
subtract().
+
Addition. The corresponding action procedure is add().
=
Perform calculation. The TIspecific action procedure is
equal().
STO
Copies the number in the display to the memory location. The
corresponding action procedure is store().
RCL
Copies the number from the memory location to the display. The
corresponding action procedure is recall().
SUM
Adds the number in the display to the number in the memory
location. The corresponding action procedure is sum().
EXC
Swaps the number in the display with the number in the memory
location. The corresponding action procedure for the TI
calculator is exchange().
+/
Negate; change sign. The corresponding action procedure is
negate().
.
Decimal point. The action procedure is decimal().
Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS
(change sign), +, , *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly what you
would expect them to do. Many of the remaining keys are the same
as in TI mode. The differences are detailed below. The action
procedure for the ENTR key is enter().
<
This is a backspace key that can be used if you make a mistake
while entering a number. It will erase digits from the display.
(See BUGS). Inverse backspace will clear the X register. The
corresponding action procedure is back().
ON
Clears the display, the state, and the memory. Pressing it with
the third pointer button turns off the calculator, in that it
exits the program. To clear state, the action procedure is
off; to quit, quit().
INV
Inverts the meaning of the function keys. This would be the
f key on an HP calculator, but xcalc does not
display multiple legends on each key. See the individual function
keys for details.
10^x
Raises "10.0" to the number in the top of the stack. When
inverted, it calculates the log (base 10) of the number in the
display. The corresponding action procedure is tenpower().
e^x
Raises "e" to the number in the top of the stack. When inverted,
it calculates the log (base e) of the number in the display. The
action procedure is epower().
STO
Copies the number in the top of the stack to a memory location.
There are 10 memory locations. The desired memory is specified by
following this key with a digit key.
RCL
Pushes the number from the specified memory location onto the
stack.
SUM
Adds the number on top of the stack to the number in the
specified memory location.
x:y
Exchanges the numbers in the top two stack positions, the X and Y
registers. The corresponding action procedure is
XexchangeY().
R v
Rolls the stack downward. When inverted, it rolls the stack
upward. The corresponding action procedure is roll().
blank
These keys were used for programming functions on the HP10C.
Their functionality has not been duplicated in xcalc.
Finally, there are two additional action procedures:
bell(), which rings the bell; and selection(),
which performs a cut on the entire number in the
calculator’s ’’liquid crystal’’
display.
widget hierarchy
In order to specify resources, it is useful to know the hierarchy
of the widgets which compose xcalc. In the notation below,
indentation indicates hierarchical structure. The widget class
name is given first, followed by the widget instance name.
XCalc xcalc
Form ti or hp (the name depends on the mode)
Form bevel
Form screen
Label M
Toggle LCD
Label INV
Label DEG
Label RAD
Label GRAD
Label P
Command button1
Command button2
Command button3
and so on, ...
Command button38
Command button39
Command button40
bugs
HP mode is not
completely debugged. In particular, the stack is not handled
properly after errors.
see also
X , xrdb ,
the Athena Widget Set
authors
John Bradley,
University of Pennsylvania
Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium