Linux Commands Examples

A great documentation place for Linux commands

sshfs

filesystem client based on ssh

Synopsis

mounting
sshfs
[user@]host:[dir] mountpoint [options]

unmounting
fusermount -u mountpoint


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examples

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Use a device over SSH?

Linux/UNIX are not Plan 9. "Everything is a file" doesn't mean that they're all the same sort of files. FIFOs and device nodes being prime examples.

No, you cannot do it this way. My recommendation would be to use a virtual writer (celebron writes to an image, .iso or other) and pipe that to cdrecord over ssh.

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Can't access folders mounted by sshfs after sleep (or when connection lost)

I suffer the same problem in Ubuntu Linux. What I do after resume:

$ killall -9 sshfs

Then, umount

$ fusermount -u ~/far_projects

and mount again the remote filesystem.

$ sshfs -o idmap=user youruser@server:/projects ~/far_projects

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What are some options for connecting one Linux host's filesystem to the other?

This started as a comment, but got a bit out of hand...

Services like NFS & Samba are analogous to simple file sharing in Windows:

  1. easy to setup,
  2. tend to be resource hogs and because they are general purpose file system access protocols,
  3. they don't excel at the types of situations you describe: flaky / intermittent connections & moving tens of thousands of files.

For your monitoring & updating, I would use rsync, not nfs or smb...

You may still want to use samba or nfs for simple file sharing, browsing, etc. It gets easier & better with (nearly) every ubuntu release. Start by right-clicking the folder you want to share, and select Share Folder to get started. There is a gnome bug in 10.04 that doesn't offer to install needed packages, but it's being worked on.

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faster way to mount a remote file system than sshfs?

sshfs is using the SSH file transfer protocol, which means encryption.

If you just mount via NFS, it's of course faster, because not encrypted.

are you trying to mount volumes on the same network? then use NFS.

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scp/sshfs on a remote 'not direct acessable' machine

What OS are you and your destination running?

If it's Linux, then the Zmodem protocol is perfect for what you are trying to do.

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sshfs: cannot set file timestamp

Judging from http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/message.php?msg_id=26780130 (FUSE mailing list - basically, what SSHFS implements), you are experiencing this problem, because filesystem used in /sshfs/server/some/ does not handle the attributes handler used. There is no solution whatsoever for SSHFS implementation that you are using.

EDIT
Sorry, I didn't see that you have "noatime" option set. Why? Remove it. That should solve the issue here.

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portmap on debian, can I safely remove it?

If you don't use NFS, yes, it's safe to remove it.

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sshfs device is busy

Some program is using a file in the filesystem you're trying to unmount. It could be a file opened for reading or writing, a current directory, or a few more obscure cases. It could even be due to a directory on the filesystem being a mount point.

To investigate, run lsof +f -- example. It will tell what the process(es) are using the filesystem. Make your own judgement as to whether to make them close files, kill them, or defer the unmount operation.

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Remote file system access issues

I think the problem is sshfs (or using a remote terminal protocol like SSH as a file access protocol) where every file access needs to be simulated using shell commands which is extrememly inefficient.

You should be able to get much better performance with proper filing protocols like NFS or CIFS. Remember to use a VPN like kobaltz suggested because these filing protocols aren't very secure.

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Running sshfs as user via autofs

Drawing heavily from another similar question, I've found a solution. It required some serious experimentation and tweaking, though. Note that this modified script is now incompatible with mounting from /etc/fstab.

/etc/auto.master

/- /etc/auto.sshfs uid=1000,gid=1000,--timeout=30,--ghost


/etc/auto.sshfs

/local/mountpoint -fstype=fuse,rw,nodev,nonempty,noatime,allow_other,workaround=rename,ssh_command=/usr/local/sbin/ssh_user :sshfs\#remoteuser@server\:/remote/path


This needs to be executable, of course: /usr/local/sbin/ssh_user

#!/bin/bash

# declare arrays for ssh options
declare -a ADD_OPTIONS
declare -a CLEANED_SSH_OPTS

# add options to be automatically added to the ssh command here.
# example
#ADD_OPTIONS=( '-C' )
# empty default
ADD_OPTIONS=(  )
# The following options to SSH cause it to open a connection and immediately
# become a background task. This allow this script to open a local socket
# for future invocations of ssh. (use "ControlMaster auto" in ~/.ssh/config)
SOCKET_OPTIONS=( '-fN' )

for OPT in "$@"; do 
  # Add list of values to be removed from sshfs ssh options. By default, sshfs
  # disables X11 forwarding. We're overriding that behavior.
  case $OPT in
    "-x")
     # this and these like this will be removed
    ;;
    "-a")
    ;;
    "-oClearAllForwardings=yes")
    ;;
    *)
      # These are ok.. add
      NUM=${#CLEANED_SSH_OPTS[@]}
      CLEANED_SSH_OPTS[$NUM]="$OPT"
    ;;
  esac
done

# For some reason, I needed to generate strings of the ssh command before
# passing it on as an argument to the 'su' command. It simply would not
# work otherwise.
# Throwing the $SOCKET_OPTIONS in with the rest of the arguments is kind
# of hackish, but it seems to handily override any other specified behavior.

# Establishes an ssh socket if none exists...
SSH_SOCKET_CMD="ssh $SOCKET_OPTIONS ${ADD_OPTIONS[@]} ${CLEANED_SSH_OPTS[@]}"
su localuser -c "$SSH_SOCKET_CMD"

# ...and use that socket to mount the remote host
SSH_SSHFS_CMD="ssh ${ADD_OPTIONS[@]} ${CLEANED_SSH_OPTS[@]}"
exec su localuser -c "$SSH_SSHFS_CMD"


And, in case anyone cares: ~/.ssh/config

Host *
ControlMaster auto
ControlPath /tmp/%u@%l?%r@%h:%p
ServerAliveInterval 10
Compression yes

Host host1 host1.myschool.edu host2 host2.myschool.edu
ForwardX11 yes
Ciphers arcfour256,arcfour128,arcfour,blowfish-cbc

Host host3 host3.myschool.edu
ForwardX11 no
Ciphers arcfour256,arcfour128,arcfour,blowfish-cbc

description

SSHFS (Secure SHell FileSystem) is a file system for Linux (and other operating systems with a FUSE implementation, such as Mac OS X or FreeBSD) capable of operating on files on a remote computer using just a secure shell login on the remote computer. On the local computer where the SSHFS is mounted, the implementation makes use of the FUSE (Filesystem in Userspace) kernel module. The practical effect of this is that the end user can seamlessly interact with remote files being securely served over SSH just as if they were local files on his/her computer. On the remote computer the SFTP subsystem of SSH is used.

If host is a numeric IPv6 address, it needs to be enclosed in square brackets.

options

general options:
-o
opt,[opt...]

mount options

-h --help

print help

-V --version

print version

SSHFS options:
-p
PORT

equivalent to ’-o port=PORT’

-C

equivalent to ’-o compression=yes’

-F ssh_configfile

specifies alternative ssh configuration file

-1

equivalent to ’-o ssh_protocol=1’

-o reconnect

reconnect to server

-o delay_connect

delay connection to server

-o sshfs_sync

synchronous writes

-o no_readahead

synchronous reads (no speculative readahead)

-o sshfs_debug

print some debugging information

-o cache=BOOL

enable caching {yes,no} (default: yes)

-o cache_timeout=N

sets timeout for caches in seconds (default: 20)

-o cache_X_timeout=N

sets timeout for {stat,dir,link} cache

-o workaround=LIST

colon separated list of workarounds

none

no workarounds enabled

all

all workarounds enabled

[no]rename

fix renaming to existing file (default: off)

[no]nodelaysrv

set nodelay tcp flag in ssh (default: off)

[no]truncate

fix truncate for old servers (default: off)

[no]buflimit

fix buffer fillup bug in server (default: on)

-o idmap=TYPE

user/group ID mapping, possible types are:

none

no translation of the ID space (default)

user

only translate UID of connecting user

file

translate UIDs/GIDs based upon the contents of uidfile and gidfile

-o uidfile=FILE

file containing username:uid mappings for idmap=file

-o gidfile=FILE

file containing groupname:gid mappings for idmap=file

-o nomap=TYPE

with idmap=file, how to handle missing mappings

ignore

don’t do any re-mapping

error

return an error (default)

-o ssh_command=CMD

execute CMD instead of ’ssh’

-o ssh_protocol=N

ssh protocol to use (default: 2)

-o sftp_server=SERV

path to sftp server or subsystem (default: sftp)

-o directport=PORT

directly connect to PORT bypassing ssh -o slave communicate over stdin and stdout bypassing network

-o transform_symlinks

transform absolute symlinks to relative

-o follow_symlinks

follow symlinks on the server

-o no_check_root

don’t check for existence of ’dir’ on server

-o password_stdin

read password from stdin (only for pam_mount!)

-o SSHOPT=VAL

ssh options (see man ssh_config)

FUSE options:
-d -o
debug

enable debug output (implies -f)

-f

foreground operation

-s

disable multi-threaded operation

-o allow_other

allow access to other users

-o allow_root

allow access to root

-o nonempty

allow mounts over non-empty file/dir

-o default_permissions enable permission checking by kernel

-o fsname=NAME

set filesystem name

-o subtype=NAME

set filesystem type

-o large_read

issue large read requests (2.4 only)

-o max_read=N

set maximum size of read requests

-o hard_remove

immediate removal (don’t hide files)

-o use_ino

let filesystem set inode numbers

-o readdir_ino

try to fill in d_ino in readdir

-o direct_io

use direct I/O

-o kernel_cache

cache files in kernel

-o [no]auto_cache

enable caching based on modification times

-o umask=M

set file permissions (octal)

-o uid=N

set file owner (number)

-o gid=N

set file group (number)

-o entry_timeout=T

cache timeout for names (1.0s)

-o negative_timeout=T

cache timeout for deleted names (0.0s)

-o attr_timeout=T

cache timeout for attributes (1.0s)

-o ac_attr_timeout=T

auto cache timeout for attributes (attr_timeout)

-o intr

allow requests to be interrupted

-o intr_signal=NUM

signal to send on interrupt (10)

-o modules=M1[:M2...]

names of modules to push onto filesystem stack

-o max_write=N

set maximum size of write requests

-o max_readahead=N

set maximum readahead

-o async_read

perform reads asynchronously (default)

-o sync_read

perform reads synchronously

Module options:
[subdir]
-o
subdir=DIR

prepend this directory to all paths (mandatory)

-o [no]rellinksa

transform absolute symlinks to relative

[iconv]
-o
from_code=CHARSET

original encoding of file names (default: UTF-8)

-o to_code=CHARSET

new encoding of the file names (default: ISO-8859-2)


authors

SSHFS has been written by Miklos Szeredi <miklos[:at:]szeredi[:dot:]hu>.

This man page was written by Bartosz Fenski <fenio[:at:]debian[:dot:]org> for the Debian GNU/Linux distribution (but it may be used by others).

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