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locale

specific information.

Synopsis

locale [ -a-m]

locale [ -ck ] name...


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examples

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Why "LANG=C"? (not D or E or F)

In the C programming language, the locale name C “specifies the minimal environment for C translation†(C99 §7.11.1.1; the principle has been the same since at least the 1980s). As most operating systems are written in C, especially the unix-inspired ones where locales are set through the LANG and LC_xxx environment variables, C ends up being the name of a “safe†locale everywhere.

POSIX specifies that both C and POSIX must be valid locale names, with the same neutral settings.

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Linux - Forcing 24-hour locale?

Locales can be set for various components separately, so you can set LC_TIME to either "en_GB.utf-8" (Great Britain) or "C" (no locale at all).

(Don't forget /etc/locale.gen.)

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LANG and LANGUAGE environment variable in Debian based systems

Have a look at the manpage locale(7): it describes that LANG is a fallback setting, while LC_ALL overrides all separate LC_* settings.

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locale: What is the LANGUAGE variable used for? (and when?)

It overrides to locale given in $LC_ALL with regards to gettext message catalogs. Otherwise, it's not used.

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UTF-8 locale portability (and ssh)

It's an interesting question, but I think there may be a misconception in there about how variables are set up. When a secure shell session is initiated (ssh remotehost), what happens at the other end is an instantiation of a new shell with a separate environment. That is a fancy way of saying that the server starts a fresh shell. That new shell may or may not be configured with the same locale as your original local shell.

E.g

geee: ~
$ echo `locale |grep LANG` :: `date`
LANG=en_US.UTF-8 :: Mon Dec 3 07:04:00 CET 2012

$ ssh flode
flode: ~
$ echo `locale |grep LANG` :: `date`
LANG=nb_NO.UTF-8 LANGUAGE=nb_NO.UTF-8 :: ma. 03. des. 06:59:33 +0100 2012

In order to demonstrate this, I set up the locale on the remote shell for Norwegian by adding the following lines to the ~/.bash_profile file:

export     LANG=nb_NO.UTF-8
export LANGUAGE=nb_NO.UTF-8
export   LC_ALL=nb_NO.UTF-8

Similarly, you will have to set up the environment on the remote shell to do the same. Of course, other shells read different startup files such as ~/.zprofile for the Z shell.

The misconception I suspected lay in that the local variables (settings) are in no way forwarded. The remote shell has its own settings. In order to list the available languages on the remote host, be it a minimalistic BusyBox shell or a full-blown GNU OS, use the locale command with the -a switch (as noted in the question). Any of the printed lines may be used as a locale setting for that environment.

As for the first question, the default locale that any shell starts with is usually configured in a central place such as /etc/profile. Most login shells read this file on startup.

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Is it safe to remove /usr/share/locale if 'locales' package is removed

I just removed the directory on a test-box here(tm), and didn't notice any issues. Reinstalling locales will re-create the directory.

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Debian 5.0 belocs-locales vs locales

I found the answer:

Getting locale changes into upstream glibc is unnecessarily hard. The glibc maintainer (correctly) requires proof of the correctness of a change before it's included, but the onus of demonstrating that change falls to the glibc package maintainers. The package maintainers are frequently not qualified to provide this proof, and cannot answer upstreams questions to the needed degree of satisfaction. The glibc upstream maintainer also has a well deserved reputation for being difficult to approach with changes.

For this reason, we should switch to the belocs locale packages, which are separate from glibc and more easily maintained.

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How to define a custom locale?

Use of the gregorian calendar is hard-coded in glibc: https://github.com/rbdixon/glibc/blob/master/time/offtime.c#L58

So anything that uses the C library ("system") routines - gmtime_r, localtime_r and so on - to convert between seconds-since-the-epoch and broken-down-date format, will stick to the "standard" calendar (365 days in a year, Gregorian leap-year formula, 7 days per week...).

For code you write yourself, you could use the ICU Project's libraries and provide your own non-Gergorian calendar specification in the Unicode Common Locale Data Repository XML format.

I'm pretty sure you don't want to do that.

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Changing Ubuntu locale settings by GUI crashes the accounts-daemon

It turns out that my "~/.pam_environment" config is not being read at all. I've than made a workaround by setting these in my ~/.profile file:

export LC_COLLATE="C"
export LANG="en_US.UTF-8"
export LC_ALL="pt_BR.UTF-8"

Though using LC_ALL is not recommended in the "locale" man entry.

The only cause I could find googli'n arount for .pam_environment being ignored is home dir. encription usyng ecryptfs - and that's not my case.

Anyway, its working, so let it be.

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Kubuntu KDE Language Mixup

It sounds like, if they aren't being renamed back properly, you might need to reinstall. Otherwise can I suggest perhaps moving your .kde directory to "reset" all your settings temporarily and see if that works.

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Why "LANG=C"? (not D or E or F)

In the C programming language, the locale name C “specifies the minimal environment for C translation†(C99 §7.11.1.1; the principle has been the same since at least the 1980s). As most operating systems are written in C, especially the unix-inspired ones where locales are set through the LANG and LC_xxx environment variables, C ends up being the name of a “safe†locale everywhere.

POSIX specifies that both C and POSIX must be valid locale names, with the same neutral settings.

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Changing keyboard layout

In the terminal try

su - gnome-keyboard-properties

OR

if the default Gmone2 system /administration / keyboard

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How to use LC_MESSAGES=C with gcc every time?

Create an alias in your shell.

alias gcc="LC_MESSAGES=C \gcc"

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Use a modern locale, but retain asciibetical sorting?

Put

export LC_COLLATE=C

in your ~/.profile or ~/.bash_profile. The traditional location is ~/.profile, but some distributions now use other files for setting the environment before starting your window manager.

description

The locale program writes information about the current locale environment, or all locales, to standard output.

When invoked without arguments, locale summarizes the current locale environment for each locale category defined by the LC_* environment variables.

-a, --all-locales

        Write names of available locales.

-m, --charmaps

        Write names of available charmaps.

Output Format:

-c, --category-name

        Write names of selected categories.

-k, --keyword-name

        Write names and values of selected keywords.

environment variables

These environment variables affect each locale categories for all locale-aware programs:

LC_CTYPE

        Character classification and case conversion.

LC_COLLATE

        Collation order.

LC_TIME

        Date and time formats.

LC_NUMERIC

        Non-monetary numeric formats.

LC_MONETARY

        Monetary formats.

LC_MESSAGES

        Formats of informative and diagnostic messages and
        interactive responses.

LC_PAPER

        Paper size.

LC_NAME

        Name formats.

LC_ADDRESS

        Address formats and location information.

LC_TELEPHONE

        Telephone number formats.

LC_MEASUREMENT

        Measurement units (Metric or Other).

LC_IDENTIFICATION

        Metadata about the locale information.

This environment variable can switch against multiple locale database:

LOCPATH

        The directory where locale data is stored.  By default, /usr/lib/locale is used.

files

/usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED

List of supported values (and their associated encoding) for the locale name. This representation is recommended over --all-locales one, due being the system wide supported values.


see also

locale, locale, setlocale


author

locale was written by Ulrich Drepper for the GNU C Library.
This manpage was written by Joel Klecker <espy[:at:]debian[:dot:]org> for the Debian GNU/Linux system, and expanded by Alastair McKinstry <mckinstry[:at:]computer[:dot:]org>

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