the stupid content tracker
[--version] [--help] [-c
add an example, a script, a trick and tips
Is there a git-like file system?
What you're looking for is called "deduplication". While it's
usually implemented by vendors of specialized storage products,
the ZFS filesystem
implements it as well. Most Unix-derived
operating systems can make use of ZFS, and I'd therefore
recommend it as the first place to look.
How do I disable password prompts when doing git push/pull?
Generate a private/public key pair for password-less
For Linux, your keys are stored in
If you already have files in
~/.ssh that's named
id_rsa.pub, then you already
have a key pair. Append the contents of your public key (that's
id_rsa.pub) to the Git repository's
$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub firstname.lastname@example.org:id_rsa.tmp
$ ssh email@example.com
$ cat id_rsa.tmp >> .ssh/authorized_keys
If you don't have the key pair, generate one with
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Read this for further instructions:
How to install the latest Git version on Ubuntu 10.10?
A way likely to work would be downloading from upstream and
running the usual
$ ./configure --prefix=/PATH/WHERE/YOU/PUT/YOUR/STUFF
$ make install
inside the unpacked source directory.
Since in your edit you now explicitly write that you do not want
to build from source and want 1.7.3 tagged on 2010/10/21 things
Ubuntu's git package seems to come directly from
Debian's and Debian just migrated 220.127.116.11-2 to
TESTING a week ago. You might have some luck with asking for a
version bump in the Debian bug tracker, and could directly use
that package in Ubuntu then.
Emacs + git: auto commit every 5 minutes
You don't need emacs for that at all. You can write a shell
script that uses inotify. It could look like this:
while true; do
inotifywait -e modify FILES...
git commit ....
inotifywait is part of inoftify-tools.
git: Keep changelog for file when moving to a different repository
I was thinking about something like this for Mercurial the other
day. I think I'd write a script (probably python, but really
anything that can run shell commands) to:
- For each revision that touched File X (call it "#rev")
- Copy File X from #rev to its new location
- Commit in the new repo with the message from #rev
It would be nice if the script could allow comment-editing and
"forgetting" of some versions, where desired.
Ubuntu insists on installing git 1.7
If you check on the ubuntu package list, for the 12.10 ubuntu
version the git version is 18.104.22.168.
I don't know how you install the 1.8 version, but you're suppose
to have the 1.7 version if you use the original ubuntu 12.10
Explaining Git to someone new to revision control
Search the Internet for a Blog essay called "The Git Parable". It captures and explains
the core ideas of Git's architecture and inner workings in the
most comprehensive way.
Using su with commands
The problem is that
suser was created with
/bin/false as its default shell. Therefore, when you
try to run commands as
sudo, the system attempts to run them using
/bin/false/ which is not a real shell and fails. You
can either set a shell for
suser or you can specify
it on the command line when you run
Alternatively, you can use
sudo -u suser mkdir /home/suser/foo
This works because by default,
/bin/bash (or whatever you have set the default
$SHELL to be). Therefore, it will execute a
suser but using
the command is correctly executed.
suser's default shell:
sudo chsh suser
/bin/bash (or whatever you prefer) in the
prompt that will appear. You should now be able to launch
sudo su suser -c "mkdir /home/suser/test"
Set the shell explicitly:
sudo su suser -s /bin/bash -c "mkdir /home/suser/test"
Unable to connect to Github for the first time
When you run
ssh firstname.lastname@example.org in a normal terminal
environment, your SSH client (the ssh process on your
local machine) will request a psuedo-terminal (pty) from the
GitHub has always denied pty allocation.
Older versions (prior to 5.6) of OpenSSHâ€™s
ssh will â€œfall backâ€ to
no-pty mode if the server rejected its pty allocation request.
Newer versions (5.6 through 5.8) of OpenSSHâ€™s
ssh abort if the server rejects its pty allocation
The latest versions (5.9 and later) of
OpenSSHâ€™s ssh will take the former
action (continue) if the pty allocation was done automatically,
and the latter action (abort) if there was an explicit request
for a pty (
-t given or
You can tell ssh (either old or new) to avoid requesting
a pty allocation by using the
ssh -T email@example.com
You should then see the GitHub message:
Hi <username>! You've successfully authenticated, but
GitHub does not provide shell access.
From the OpenSSH 5.6 release announcement:
- Kill channel when pty allocation requests fail. Fixed stuck
client if the server refuses pty allocation (bz#1698)
bz#1698 seems to be a reference to a report logged in the â€œPortable
From the check-in message of OpenSSH clientloop.c rev 1.234:
improve our behaviour when TTY allocation fails: if we are in
RequestTTY=auto mode (the default), then do not treat at TTY
allocation error as fatal but rather just restore the local TTY
to cooked mode and continue. This is more graceful on devices
that never allocate TTYs.
If RequestTTY is set to "yes" or "force", then failure to
allocate a TTY is fatal.
Unable to "git stash pop" due to conflict
git stash show -p
How to upgrade to latest git on debian 7?
Since a newer version of this package is not available in
you have two options:
Ask the package maintainers to prepare a backport. It's not
guaranteed to work but some maintainers are positive about
making backports, so I'd just try.
The maintainers' e-mails could be found there.
Build it yourself from the sources. This could be done two
Build "as is" from the source tarball. Should you pick
this route, be sure to configure the Git's build
system to install everything under
/opt/git or something
like this otherwise later you'll have a great PITA
removing what you installed.
The problem is that the conventional Unix way of
installing software by spreading it across the whole
filesystem is sensible but only when you have some sort
of registry which "knows" which file belongs to which
package and vice-versa, and packaging systems such as
Debian's do exactly this. If you do "normal" install of a
package built from the sources, you in most cases will
have no way to uninstall this piece of software later
(short of using
checkinstall instead of
make install, but this really is a last
resort). Conversely, if you configure a source package to
install everything under a single directory, you will
have minor difficulties running the software (its
"binary" directories won't be on your
$PATH), in exchange uninstalling it later
will be a no-brainer — a single
Do backporting yourself. This is more involved but in
simple cases it might just work so IMO it worth trying.
Basically you go like this (a link to the
.dsc file is taken from the package's page in unstable):
# apt-get install devscripts
$ mkdir ~/devel && cd $_
$ dget http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/pool/main/g/git/git_1.8.4~rc3-1.dsc
$ dpkg-source -x git_1.8.4~rc3-1.dsc
$ cd git
Check if you have all the build dependencies satisfied by
And install everything that tool says is presently
missing. Sometimes a package might refer to a version of
something too fresh to be available in the distro you're
backporting to; in this case it's okay to try to cheat
and fix the version of such a package in the
Now fix up the version of the packages about to be built.
The best way to achieve this is to have a tool do the
$ dch --bpo
It will add an entry to the
file and open your text editor of choice to oversee it.
Just close the editor — the version for the
packages to be built is taken from the top entry in this
Now let's actually attempt to build:
$ dpkg-buildpackage -uc -us -b
If you're lucky, at this point you'll have a bunch of
shiny new Git
.deb packages in
.., which you can just install using
dpkg -i <packagename> ....
debuild clean to get rid of the built
crud or just remove the
completely. You might also want to remove whatever you
installed after running
Unfortunately, if building fails for some reason, it
takes certain knowledge to attempt to fix but this is out
of scope of this discussion.
How to reuse/extend etckeeper's metadata engine for git control of non-/etc filesystems, or extend git natively with said capability?
According to this
serverfault answer, you just do this:
It is right there in the man page.
- Create a directory
- Initialize with etckeeper:
etckeeper -d /foo
- Commit apply commits to the directory:
/foo commit 'message'
Which version control should I use for my configuration files?
anything NOT centralized, probably. I;d think git, though
Setup git repository on gentoo server using gitosis & ssh
It looks like you missed a couple steps from the guide. After
setting up the ssh keys it says:
Next we will run a command that will sprinkle some magic into
the home directory of the git user and put your public SSH key
into the list of authorized keys.
sudo -H -u git gitosis-init < /tmp/id_rsa.pub
For good measure, let's make sure the post-update hook is set
executable. I've seen it where sometimes it doesn't get set
(problem with older setuptools):
sudo chmod 755 /home/git/repositories/gitosis-admin.git/hooks/post-update
then you want to do the step you were having trouble with:
git clone git@YOUR_SERVER_HOSTNAME:gitosis-admin.git
Git is a fast,
scalable, distributed revision control system with an
unusually rich command set that provides both
high-level operations and full access to
gittutorial(7) to get started, then see
for a useful minimum set of commands.
The Git User’s
has a more in-depth
you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more
about individual git commands with "git help
command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you an
overview of the command line command syntax.
and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation can
be viewed at
the git suite version that the git program came
the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
If the option --all or -a is
given then all available commands are printed. If a git
command is named this option will bring up the manual page
for that command.
options are available to control how the manual page is
displayed. See git-help(1) for more information,
because git --help ... is converted internally
into git help ....
configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
override values from configuration files. The <name>
is expected in the same format as listed by git
config (subkeys separated by dots).
wherever your core git programs are installed. This can also
be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
variable. If no path is given, git will print the
current setting and then exit.
path, without trailing slash, where git’s HTML
documentation is installed and exit.
manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version of
git and exit.
path where the Info files documenting this version of git
are installed and exit.
output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
output is a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd>
configuration options (see the "Configuration
Mechanism" section below).
pipe git output into a pager.
path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an
absolute path or relative path to current working
path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
path relative to the current working directory. This can
also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment
variable and the core.worktree configuration variable (see
core.worktree in git-config(1) for a more detailed
git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment
repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment is
not set, it is set to the current working
use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
git-replace(1) for more information.
Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid
0.99.8.GIT), .git/config file is used to hold per-repository
configuration options. It is a simple text file modeled after
.ini format familiar to some people. Here is an example:
# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
; core variables
; Don't trust file modes
filemode = false
; user identity
name = "Junio C Hamano"
email = "junkio[:at:]twinsun[:dot:]com"
Various commands read from the
configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See
git-config(1) for a list.
More detail on the following is available
from the git concepts chapter of
the user-manual  and
A git project normally consists of a
working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level.
The .git directory contains, among other things, a compressed
object database representing the complete history of the project,
an "index" file which links that history to the current contents
of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such as
tags and branch heads.
The object database contains objects of
three main types: blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point
to blobs and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and
commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of
The commit, equivalent to what other
systems call a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the
project’s history, and each parent represents an
immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent
represent merges of independent lines of development.
All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of
their contents, normally written as a string of 40 hex digits.
Such names are globally unique. The entire history leading up to
a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A fourth
object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.
When first created, objects are stored in
individual files, but for efficiency may later be compressed
together into "pack files".
Named pointers called refs mark interesting
points in history. A ref may contain the SHA1 name of an object
or the name of another ref. Refs with names beginning ref/head/
contain the SHA1 name of the most recent commit (or "head") of a
branch under development. SHA1 names of tags of interest are
stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD contains the
name of the currently checked-out branch.
The index file is initialized with a list
of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of
attributes. The blob object represents the contents of the file
as of the head of the current branch. The attributes (last
modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file
in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can
be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated
with new content, and new commits may be created from the content
stored in the index.
The index is also capable of storing
multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These
stages are used to hold the various unmerged version of a file
when a merge is in progress.
Various git commands use the following
The git Repository
These environment variables apply to all core git
commands. Nb: it is worth noting that they may be used/overridden
by SCMS sitting above git so take care if using Cogito
This environment allows the specification
of an alternate index file. If not specified, the default of
$GIT_DIR/index is used.
If the object storage directory is
specified via this environment variable then the sha1 directories
are created underneath - otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects
directory is used.
Due to the immutable nature of git objects,
old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories.
This variable specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";"
separated) list of git object directories which can be used to
search for git objects. New objects will not be written to these
If the GIT_DIR environment variable
is set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default
.git for the base of the repository. The --git-dir
command-line option also sets this value.
Set the path to the working tree. The value
will not be used in combination with repositories found
automatically in a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command
line option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
Set the git namespace; see
gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace
command-line option also sets this value.
This should be a colon-separated list of
absolute paths. If set, it is a list of directories that git
should not chdir up into while looking for a repository
directory. It will not exclude the current working directory or a
GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment. (Useful
for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
When run in a directory that does not have
".git" repository directory, git tries to find such a directory
in the parent directories to find the top of the working tree,
but by default it does not cross filesystem boundaries. This
environment variable can be set to true to tell git not to stop
at filesystem boundaries. Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES,
this will not affect an explicit repository directory set via
GIT_DIR or on the command line.
Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or
"-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified
diff is created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or
"--unified" option value passed on the git diff command
When the environment variable
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program named by it is
called, instead of the diff invocation described above. For a
path that is added, removed, or modified,
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:
path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file
are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read
the contents of <old|new>,
are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
are the octal representation of the file
The file parameters can point at the
user’s working file (e.g. new-file in "git-diff-files"),
/dev/null (e.g. old-file when a new file is added), or a
temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index).
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the
temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
For a path that is unmerged,
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter,
A number controlling the amount of output
shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
This environment variable overrides $PAGER.
If it is set to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will
not launch a pager. See also the core.pager option in
This environment variable overrides $EDITOR
and $VISUAL. It is used by several git commands when, on
interactive mode, an editor is to be launched. See also
git-var(1) and the core.editor option in
If this environment variable is set then
git fetch and git push will use this command
instead of ssh when they need to connect to a remote
system. The $GIT_SSH command will be given exactly two
arguments: the username@host (or just host) from
the URL and the shell command to execute on that remote
To pass options to the program that you
want to list in GIT_SSH you will need to wrap the program and
options into a shell script, then set GIT_SSH to refer to the
Usually it is easier to configure any
desired options through your personal .ssh/config file. Please
consult your ssh documentation for further details.
If this environment variable is set, then
git commands which need to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g.
for HTTP or IMAP authentication) will call this program with a
suitable prompt as command line argument and read the password
from its STDOUT. See also the core.askpass option in
Whether to skip reading settings from the
system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment
variable can be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to
create a predictable environment for a picky script, or you can
set it temporarily to avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file
while waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix
If this environment variable is set to "1",
then commands such as git blame (in incremental mode),
git rev-list, git log, and git whatchanged
will force a flush of the output stream after each
commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this variable is set
to "0", the output of these commands will be done using
completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set,
git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on
whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or
"true" (comparison is case insensitive), git will print trace:
messages on stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in
command execution and external command execution. If this
variable is set to an integer value greater than 1 and lower than
10 (strictly) then git will interpret this value as an open file
descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
file descriptor. Alternatively, if this variable is set to an
absolute path (starting with a / character), git will
interpret this as a file path and will try to write the trace
messages into it.
file directory structure
Please see the
Read githooks(5) for more details
about each hook.
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage
additional information in the $GIT_DIR.
See the references in the "description"
section to get started using git. The following is probably more
detail than necessary for a first-time user.
concepts chapter of the user-manual
 and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide
introductions to the underlying git architecture.
See gitworkflows(7) for an overview
of recommended workflows.
See also the howto  documents for
some useful examples.
The internals are documented in the
GIT API documentation
Users migrating from CVS may also want to
Part of the git(1) suite
We divide git into high level ("porcelain")
commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.
high-level commands -porcelain-
We separate the porcelain commands into the
main commands and some ancillary user utilities.
Main porcelain commands
Add file contents to the index.
Apply a series of patches from a
Create an archive of files from a named
Find by binary search the change that
introduced a bug.
List, create, or delete branches.
Move objects and refs by archive.
Checkout a branch or paths to the working
Apply the changes introduced by some
Graphical alternative to git-commit.
Remove untracked files from the working
Clone a repository into a new
Record changes to the repository.
Show the most recent tag that is reachable
from a commit.
Show changes between commits, commit and
working tree, etc.
Download objects and refs from another
Prepare patches for e-mail
Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the
Print lines matching a pattern.
A portable graphical interface to
Create an empty git repository or
reinitialize an existing one.
Show commit logs.
Join two or more development histories
Move or rename a file, a directory, or a
Add or inspect object notes.
Fetch from and merge with another
repository or a local branch.
Update remote refs along with associated
Forward-port local commits to the updated
Reset current HEAD to the specified
Revert some existing commits.
Remove files from the working tree and from
Summarize git log output.
Show various types of objects.
Stash the changes in a dirty working
Show the working tree status.
Initialize, update or inspect
Create, list, delete or verify a tag object
signed with GPG.
The git repository browser.
Get and set repository or global
Git data exporter.
Backend for fast Git data importers.
(deprecated) Recover lost refs that luckily
have not yet been pruned.
Run merge conflict resolution tools to
resolve merge conflicts.
Pack heads and tags for efficient
Prune all unreachable objects from the
Manage reflog information.
Hardlink common objects in local
manage set of tracked repositories.
Pack unpacked objects in a
Create, list, delete refs to replace
(deprecated) Get and set repository or
Annotate file lines with commit
Show what revision and author last modified
each line of a file.
Find commits not merged upstream.
Count unpacked number of objects and their
Show changes using common diff
Verifies the connectivity and validity of
the objects in the database.
Extract commit ID from an archive created
display help information about git.
Instantly browse your working repository in
Show three-way merge without touching
Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted
Pick out and massage parameters.
Show branches and their commits.
Check the GPG signature of tags.
Show logs with difference each commit
Git web interface (web frontend to Git
Interacting with Others
These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
people via patch over e-mail.
Import an Arch repository into git.
Export a single commit to a CVS
Salvage your data out of another SCM people
love to hate.
A CVS server emulator for git.
Send a collection of patches from stdin to
an IMAP folder.
Import from and submit to Perforce
Applies a quilt patchset onto the current
Generates a summary of pending
Send a collection of patches as
Bidirectional operation between a
Subversion repository and git.
Indicates the object name for any type of
Indicates a blob object name.
Indicates a tree object name.
Indicates a commit object name.
Indicates a tree, commit or tag object
name. A command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately
wants to operate on a <tree> object but automatically
dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that point at
Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants
to operate on a <commit> object but automatically
dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
Indicates that an object type is required.
Currently one of: blob, tree, commit, or tag.
Indicates a filename - almost always
relative to the root of the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE
low-level commands -plumbing-
Although git includes its own porcelain
layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such
porcelains might start by reading about
git-update-index(1) and git-read-tree(1).
The interface (input, output, set of
options and the semantics) to these low-level commands are meant
to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level commands, because
these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to
Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in
order to improve the end user experience.
The following description divides the
low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in the
repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate
and compare objects, and commands that move objects and
references between repositories.
Apply a patch to files and/or to the
Copy files from the index to the working
Create a new commit object.
Compute object ID and optionally creates a
blob from a file.
Build pack index file for an existing
Run a three-way file merge.
Run a merge for files needing
Creates a tag object.
Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted
Create a packed archive of objects.
Remove extra objects that are already in
Reads tree information into the
Read, modify and delete symbolic
Unpack objects from a packed
Register file contents in the working tree
to the index.
Update the object name stored in a ref
Create a tree object from the current
Provide content or type and size
information for repository objects.
Compares files in the working tree and the
Compares content and mode of blobs between
the index and repository.
Compares the content and mode of blobs
found via two tree objects.
Output information on each ref.
Show information about files in the index
and the working tree.
List references in a remote
List the contents of a tree object.
Find as good common ancestors as possible
for a merge.
Find symbolic names for given revs.
Find redundant pack files.
Lists commit objects in reverse
Show packed archive index.
List references in a local
(deprecated) Create a tar archive of the
files in the named tree object.
Creates a temporary file with a
Show a git logical variable.
Validate packed git archive files.
In general, the interrogate commands do not
touch the files in the working tree.
A really simple server for git
Receive missing objects from another
Server side implementation of Git over
Push objects over git protocol to another
Update auxiliary info file to help dumb
The following are helper commands used by
the above; end users typically do not use them directly.
Download from a remote git repository via
Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another
Routines to help parsing remote repository
Receive what is pushed into the
Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH
Send archive back to git-archive.
Send objects packed back to
Internal helper commands
These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
users typically do not use them directly.
Display gitattributes information.
Ensures that a reference name is well
Display data in columns.
Retrieve and store user credentials.
Helper to temporarily store passwords in
Helper to store credentials on disk.
Produce a merge commit message.
Extracts patch and authorship from a single
Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
The standard helper program to use with
Compute unique ID for a patch.
(deprecated) List the references in a
Git’s i18n setup code for shell
Common git shell script setup code.
Remove unnecessary whitespace.
Git User’s Manual
git concepts chapter of the
GIT API documentation
Report bugs to the Git mailing list
 > where the development and maintenance is primarily
done. You do not have to be subscribed to the list to send a
Any git command accepting any
<object> can also use the following symbolic
indicates the head of the current
a valid tag name (i.e. a
a valid head name (i.e. a
For a more complete list of ways to spell
object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in
Please see gitglossary(7).
gitcli, The Git
was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained
by Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the
git mailing list
gives you a more complete list of
you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of
git-shortlog(1) and git-blame(1) can show you
the authors for specific parts of the project.