Linux Commands Examples

A great documentation place for Linux commands


the stupid content tracker


git [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
<command> [<args>]

add an example, a script, a trick and tips

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git add .
git q

Is there a git-like file system?

What you're looking for is called "deduplication". While it's usually implemented by vendors of specialized storage products, the ZFS filesystem implements it as well. Most Unix-derived operating systems can make use of ZFS, and I'd therefore recommend it as the first place to look.


How do I disable password prompts when doing git push/pull?

Generate a private/public key pair for password-less authentication.

For Linux, your keys are stored in ~/.ssh.

If you already have files in ~/.ssh that's named id_rsa and, then you already have a key pair. Append the contents of your public key (that's to the Git repository's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file.

$ scp ~/.ssh/ user@git.repo:id_rsa.tmp
$ ssh user@git.repo
$ cat id_rsa.tmp >> .ssh/authorized_keys

If you don't have the key pair, generate one with

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa

Read this for further instructions:


How to install the latest Git version on Ubuntu 10.10?

A way likely to work would be downloading from upstream and running the usual

$ autoreconf
$ ./configure --prefix=/PATH/WHERE/YOU/PUT/YOUR/STUFF
$ make install

inside the unpacked source directory.


Since in your edit you now explicitly write that you do not want to build from source and want 1.7.3 tagged on 2010/10/21 things look differently.

Ubuntu's git package seems to come directly from Debian's and Debian just migrated to TESTING a week ago. You might have some luck with asking for a version bump in the Debian bug tracker, and could directly use that package in Ubuntu then.


Emacs + git: auto commit every 5 minutes

You don't need emacs for that at all. You can write a shell script that uses inotify. It could look like this:

while true; do
    inotifywait -e modify FILES...
    git commit ....

inotifywait is part of inoftify-tools.


git: Keep changelog for file when moving to a different repository

I was thinking about something like this for Mercurial the other day. I think I'd write a script (probably python, but really anything that can run shell commands) to:

  1. For each revision that touched File X (call it "#rev")
    1. Copy File X from #rev to its new location
    2. Commit in the new repo with the message from #rev

It would be nice if the script could allow comment-editing and "forgetting" of some versions, where desired.


Ubuntu insists on installing git 1.7

If you check on the ubuntu package list, for the 12.10 ubuntu version the git version is

I don't know how you install the 1.8 version, but you're suppose to have the 1.7 version if you use the original ubuntu 12.10 repository list.


Explaining Git to someone new to revision control

Search the Internet for a Blog essay called "The Git Parable". It captures and explains the core ideas of Git's architecture and inner workings in the most comprehensive way.


Using su with commands

The problem is that suser was created with /bin/false as its default shell. Therefore, when you try to run commands as suser through sudo, the system attempts to run them using /bin/false/ which is not a real shell and fails. You can either set a shell for suser or you can specify it on the command line when you run sudo. Alternatively, you can use sudo's -u option.

  1. Use -u:

    sudo -u suser mkdir /home/suser/foo

    This works because by default, sudo uses /bin/bash (or whatever you have set the default $SHELL to be). Therefore, it will execute a command as suser but using bash, so the command is correctly executed.

  2. Set suser's default shell:

    sudo chsh suser 

    Enter /bin/bash (or whatever you prefer) in the prompt that will appear. You should now be able to launch commands as suser:

    sudo su suser -c "mkdir /home/suser/test"
  3. Set the shell explicitly:

    sudo su suser -s /bin/bash -c "mkdir /home/suser/test"

Unable to connect to Github for the first time

When you run ssh in a normal terminal environment, your SSH client (the ssh process on your local machine) will request a psuedo-terminal (pty) from the server.

GitHub has always denied pty allocation.

Older versions (prior to 5.6) of OpenSSH’s ssh will “fall back†to no-pty mode if the server rejected its pty allocation request.

Newer versions (5.6 through 5.8) of OpenSSH’s ssh abort if the server rejects its pty allocation request.

The latest versions (5.9 and later) of OpenSSH’s ssh will take the former action (continue) if the pty allocation was done automatically, and the latter action (abort) if there was an explicit request for a pty (-t given or RequestTTY equal to yes/force).

You can tell ssh (either old or new) to avoid requesting a pty allocation by using the -T option:

ssh -T

You should then see the GitHub message:

Hi <username>! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.

From the OpenSSH 5.6 release announcement:

  • Kill channel when pty allocation requests fail. Fixed stuck client if the server refuses pty allocation (bz#1698)

bz#1698 seems to be a reference to a report logged in the “Portable OpenSSHâ€Â Bugzilla.

From the check-in message of OpenSSH clientloop.c rev 1.234:

improve our behaviour when TTY allocation fails: if we are in RequestTTY=auto mode (the default), then do not treat at TTY allocation error as fatal but rather just restore the local TTY to cooked mode and continue. This is more graceful on devices that never allocate TTYs.

If RequestTTY is set to "yes" or "force", then failure to allocate a TTY is fatal.


Unable to "git stash pop" due to conflict

Resolved with:

git stash show -p


How to upgrade to latest git on debian 7?

Since a newer version of this package is not available in wheezy-backports you have two options:

  1. Ask the package maintainers to prepare a backport. It's not guaranteed to work but some maintainers are positive about making backports, so I'd just try.

    The maintainers' e-mails could be found there.

  2. Build it yourself from the sources. This could be done two ways:

    • Build "as is" from the source tarball. Should you pick this route, be sure to configure the Git's build system to install everything under ~/git or /opt/git or something like this otherwise later you'll have a great PITA removing what you installed.

      The problem is that the conventional Unix way of installing software by spreading it across the whole filesystem is sensible but only when you have some sort of registry which "knows" which file belongs to which package and vice-versa, and packaging systems such as Debian's do exactly this. If you do "normal" install of a package built from the sources, you in most cases will have no way to uninstall this piece of software later (short of using checkinstall instead of make install, but this really is a last resort). Conversely, if you configure a source package to install everything under a single directory, you will have minor difficulties running the software (its "binary" directories won't be on your $PATH), in exchange uninstalling it later will be a no-brainer — a single rm -rf /path/to/that/dir.

    • Do backporting yourself. This is more involved but in simple cases it might just work so IMO it worth trying.

      Basically you go like this (a link to the .dsc file is taken from the package's page in unstable):

      # apt-get install devscripts
      $ mkdir ~/devel && cd $_
      $ dget
      $ dpkg-source -x git_1.8.4~rc3-1.dsc
      $ cd git

      Check if you have all the build dependencies satisfied by running

      $ dpkg-checkbuilddeps

      And install everything that tool says is presently missing. Sometimes a package might refer to a version of something too fresh to be available in the distro you're backporting to; in this case it's okay to try to cheat and fix the version of such a package in the debian/control file.

      Now fix up the version of the packages about to be built. The best way to achieve this is to have a tool do the right thing:

      $ dch --bpo

      It will add an entry to the debian/changelog file and open your text editor of choice to oversee it. Just close the editor — the version for the packages to be built is taken from the top entry in this file.

      Now let's actually attempt to build:

      $ dpkg-buildpackage -uc -us -b

      If you're lucky, at this point you'll have a bunch of shiny new Git .deb packages in .., which you can just install using dpkg -i <packagename> ....

      (Run debuild clean to get rid of the built crud or just remove the git directory completely. You might also want to remove whatever you installed after running dpkg-checkbuilddep.)

      Unfortunately, if building fails for some reason, it takes certain knowledge to attempt to fix but this is out of scope of this discussion.


How to reuse/extend etckeeper's metadata engine for git control of non-/etc filesystems, or extend git natively with said capability?

According to this serverfault answer, you just do this:

It is right there in the man page.

  • Create a directory /foo
  • Initialize with etckeeper: etckeeper -d /foo init
  • Commit apply commits to the directory: etckeeper -d /foo commit 'message'

Which version control should I use for my configuration files?

anything NOT centralized, probably. I;d think git, though


Setup git repository on gentoo server using gitosis & ssh

It looks like you missed a couple steps from the guide. After setting up the ssh keys it says:

Next we will run a command that will sprinkle some magic into the home directory of the git user and put your public SSH key into the list of authorized keys.

sudo -H -u git gitosis-init < /tmp/


For good measure, let's make sure the post-update hook is set executable. I've seen it where sometimes it doesn't get set (problem with older setuptools):

sudo chmod 755 /home/git/repositories/gitosis-admin.git/hooks/post-update

then you want to do the step you were having trouble with:

git clone git@YOUR_SERVER_HOSTNAME:gitosis-admin.git
cd gitosis-admin


Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals.

See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see Everyday Git [1] for a useful minimum set of commands. The Git User’s Manual [2] has a more in-depth introduction.

After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about individual git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.

Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation can be viewed at



Prints the git suite version that the git program came from.


Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are printed. If a git command is named this option will bring up the manual page for that command.

Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help ... is converted internally into git help ....

-c <name>=<value>

Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by dots).


Path to wherever your core git programs are installed. This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting and then exit.


Print the path, without trailing slash, where git’s HTML documentation is installed and exit.


Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version of git and exit.


Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of git are installed and exit.

-p, --paginate

Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).


Do not pipe git output into a pager.


Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute path or relative path to current working directory.


Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a path relative to the current working directory. This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-config(1) for a more detailed discussion).


Set the git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details. Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.


Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment is not set, it is set to the current working directory.


Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See git-replace(1) for more information.

configuration mechanism

Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), .git/config file is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a simple text file modeled after .ini format familiar to some people. Here is an example:

# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.

; core variables
; Don't trust file modes
filemode = false

; user identity
name = "Junio C Hamano"
email = "junkio[:at:]twinsun[:dot:]com"

Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list.


More detail on the following is available from the git concepts chapter of the user-manual [3] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other things, a compressed object database representing the complete history of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such as tags and branch heads.

The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of parent commits.

The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the project’s history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique. The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.

When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA1 name of the most recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the content stored in the index.

The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.

environment variables

Various git commands use the following environment variables:

The git Repository
These environment variables apply to all core git commands. Nb: it is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above git so take care if using Cogito etc.


This environment allows the specification of an alternate index file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.


If the object storage directory is specified via this environment variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath - otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.


Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of git object directories which can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.


If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository. The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.


Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be used in combination with repositories found automatically in a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set). This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command line option and the core.worktree configuration variable.


Set the git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace command-line option also sets this value.


This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir up into while looking for a repository directory. It will not exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment. (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)


When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.

git Commits

see git-commit-tree(1)

git Diffs

Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the git diff command line.


When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:

path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode



are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of <old|new>,


are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,


are the octal representation of the file modes.

The file parameters can point at the user’s working file (e.g. new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g. old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index). GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter, <path>.


A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)


This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch a pager. See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).


This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-config(1).


If this environment variable is set then git fetch and git push will use this command instead of ssh when they need to connect to a remote system. The $GIT_SSH command will be given exactly two arguments: the username@host (or just host) from the URL and the shell command to execute on that remote system.

To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script, then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.

Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for further details.


If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the core.askpass option in git-config(1).


Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.


If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, and git whatchanged will force a flush of the output stream after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.


If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case insensitive), git will print trace: messages on stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command execution and external command execution. If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file descriptor. Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path (starting with a / character), git will interpret this as a file path and will try to write the trace messages into it.


file directory structure

Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the $GIT_DIR.

further documentation

See the references in the "description" section to get started using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.

The git concepts chapter of the user-manual [3] and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying git architecture.

See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

See also the howto [4] documents for some useful examples.

The internals are documented in the GIT API documentation [5] .

Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).


Part of the git(1) suite

git commands

We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.

high-level commands -porcelain-

We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary user utilities.

Main porcelain commands

Add file contents to the index.


Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.


Create an archive of files from a named tree.


Find by binary search the change that introduced a bug.


List, create, or delete branches.


Move objects and refs by archive.


Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree.


Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.


Graphical alternative to git-commit.


Remove untracked files from the working tree.


Clone a repository into a new directory.


Record changes to the repository.


Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.


Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.


Download objects and refs from another repository.


Prepare patches for e-mail submission.


Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.


Print lines matching a pattern.


A portable graphical interface to Git.


Create an empty git repository or reinitialize an existing one.


Show commit logs.


Join two or more development histories together.


Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.


Add or inspect object notes.


Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch.


Update remote refs along with associated objects.


Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head.


Reset current HEAD to the specified state.


Revert some existing commits.


Remove files from the working tree and from the index.


Summarize git log output.


Show various types of objects.


Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.


Show the working tree status.


Initialize, update or inspect submodules.


Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.


The git repository browser.

Ancillary Commands


Get and set repository or global options.


Git data exporter.


Backend for fast Git data importers.


Rewrite branches.


(deprecated) Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.


Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.


Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.


Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.


Manage reflog information.


Hardlink common objects in local repositories.


manage set of tracked repositories.


Pack unpacked objects in a repository.


Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.


(deprecated) Get and set repository or global options.



Annotate file lines with commit information.


Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.


Find commits not merged upstream.


Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.


Show changes using common diff tools.


Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.


Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.


display help information about git.


Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.


Show three-way merge without touching index.


Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.


Pick out and massage parameters.


Show branches and their commits.


Check the GPG signature of tags.


Show logs with difference each commit introduces.


Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

Interacting with Others
These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people via patch over e-mail.


Import an Arch repository into git.


Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.


Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.


A CVS server emulator for git.


Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.


Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.


Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.


Generates a summary of pending changes.


Send a collection of patches as emails.


Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and git.

identifier terminology


Indicates the object name for any type of object.


Indicates a blob object name.


Indicates a tree object name.


Indicates a commit object name.


Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.


Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.


Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob, tree, commit, or tag.


Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

low-level commands -plumbing-

Although git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-read-tree(1).

The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

The following description divides the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between repositories.

Manipulation commands

Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.


Copy files from the index to the working tree.


Create a new commit object.


Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.


Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.


Run a three-way file merge.


Run a merge for files needing merging.


Creates a tag object.


Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.


Create a packed archive of objects.


Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.


Reads tree information into the index.


Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.


Unpack objects from a packed archive.


Register file contents in the working tree to the index.


Update the object name stored in a ref safely.


Create a tree object from the current index.

Interrogation commands

Provide content or type and size information for repository objects.


Compares files in the working tree and the index.


Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository.


Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.


Output information on each ref.


Show information about files in the index and the working tree.


List references in a remote repository.


List the contents of a tree object.


Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.


Find symbolic names for given revs.


Find redundant pack files.


Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.


Show packed archive index.


List references in a local repository.


(deprecated) Create a tar archive of the files in the named tree object.


Creates a temporary file with a blob’s contents.


Show a git logical variable.


Validate packed git archive files.

In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.

Synching repositories

A really simple server for git repositories.


Receive missing objects from another repository.


Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.


Push objects over git protocol to another repository.


Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically do not use them directly.


Download from a remote git repository via HTTP.


Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.


Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.


Receive what is pushed into the repository.


Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.


Send archive back to git-archive.


Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

Internal helper commands
These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users typically do not use them directly.


Display gitattributes information.


Ensures that a reference name is well formed.


Display data in columns.


Retrieve and store user credentials.


Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.


Helper to store credentials on disk.


Produce a merge commit message.


Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.


Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.


The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.


Compute unique ID for a patch.


(deprecated) List the references in a remote repository.


Git’s i18n setup code for shell scripts.


Common git shell script setup code.


Remove unnecessary whitespace.



Everyday Git



Git User’s Manual



git concepts chapter of the user-manual






GIT API documentation





reporting bugs

Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git[:at:]vger.kernel[:dot:]org [6] > where the development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be subscribed to the list to send a message there.

symbolic identifiers

Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following symbolic notation:


indicates the head of the current branch.


a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).


a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).


Please see gitglossary(7).

see also

gittutorial, gittutorial-2, Everyday Git [1] , gitcvs-migration, gitglossary, gitcore-tutorial, gitcli, The Git User’s Manual [2] , gitworkflows


Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list <git[:at:]vger.kernel[:dot:]org [6] >. gives you a more complete list of contributors.

If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1) and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the project.

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